Comparisons of ethical theories


Action research Action research, which is often contrasted with experimental research, consists of drawing upon the observations of field-workers and other persons directly involved with delinquents, potential delinquents, or prisoners. Animal nature has analogies to human nature, and by doing our duties to animals in respect of manifestations of human nature, we indirectly do our duty to humanity….

Baier specially underscores trust, a basic relation between particular persons, as the fundamental concept of morality, and notes its obfuscation within theories premised on abstract and autonomous agents. This position is usually described as preference utilitarianism.

Alice wants to help and reasonably believes that buying a bus ticket home for this runaway will help, so she buys a bus ticket and puts the runaway on the bus. With egoism, a bank robber is morally right in robbing a bank, because the action benefits them individually. His approach expressly rejected the need to identify a principled basis for specifying the content of the decent minimum and instead maintained that its identification was a matter of collective choice and fair procedure.

Care Ethics

In the illustration, the results for the diluted test samples can be compared to the results of the standard curve the blue line in the illustration to estimate the amount of protein in the unknown sample. The preferred pattern of distribution in CEA is a function of two factors: The mathematical models used to analyze such data must consider each differing covariate if measuredand results are not meaningful if a covariate is neither randomized nor included in the Comparisons of ethical theories.

In addition, the morally right decision is the same no matter what.


Carol Gilligan While early strains of care ethics can be detected in the writings of feminist philosophers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, Catherine and Harriet Beecher, and Charlotte Perkins, it was first most explicitly articulated by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings in the early s.

She sanctions a feminist care ethic designed to thwart the accretion of power to the existing powerful, and to increase value for activities that legitimize shared power. This approach could be built into total consequentialism with rights weighed against happiness and other values or, alternatively, Comparisons of ethical theories disvalue of rights violations could be lexically ranked prior to any other kind of loss or harm cf.

The implications these sorts of theories have for the proper treatment of animals will be explored after that. This kind of agent-relative consequentialism is then supposed to capture commonsense moral intuitions in such cases. For example, in astronomy it is clearly impossible, when testing the hypothesis "Stars are collapsed clouds of hydrogen", to start out with a giant cloud of hydrogen, and then perform the experiment of waiting a few billion years for it to form a star.

Analyzing and interpreting data 5. In contrast, Haretries to derive his version of utilitarianism from substantively neutral accounts of morality, of moral language, and of rationality. Further, certain types of head injuries and complications during pregnancy or birth are correlated with long-term increases in the tendency of the child to commit crime.

Held, Justice and Care: Implications for the Treatment of Animals If indirect theories are correct, then we are not required to take the interests of animals to be directly relevant to the assessment of our actions when we are deciding how to act. Alternatively, they argue that a feminist care ethic is a preferable foundation for grounding moral obligations to animals because its relational ontology acknowledges love and empathy as major bases for human-animal connections, and its contextual flexibility allows for a more nuanced consideration of animals across a continuum of difference.

As do other disciplines, criminology distinguishes between pure and applied research and between statistical and intuitive ways of thinking. Direct but Unequal Theories Most people accept an account of the proper moral status of animals according to which the interests of animals count directly in the assessment of actions that affect them, but do not count for as much as the interests of human beings.

According to Regan, any being that is a subject-of-a-life is a being that has inherent value. While this last claim in particular remains controversial, there is little disagreement about other features of the empirical story about health inequalities.

Since animals are not capable of representing themselves in this way, they cannot have rights. But although they overlap, these are discrete fields in that although care ethics connotes feminine traits, not all feminine and feminist ethics are care ethics, and the necessary connection between care ethics and femininity has been subject to rigorous challenge.

The down side is that it masks from public consideration features of a situation that may be morally relevant in making just allocation decisions. He calls for businesses to balance caring and commodity production by making work and care more compatible, although he surmises that the goals of care need not fully subordinate economic ends such as profitability.

Constructing explanations for science and designing solutions for engineering 7.

Animals and Ethics

Scientific and Engineering Practices. Care Ethics. The moral theory known as “ the ethics of care” implies that there is moral significance in the fundamental elements of relationships and dependencies in human life.

Normatively, care ethics seeks to maintain relationships by contextualizing and promoting the well-being of care-givers and care-receivers in a network of social relations.

i Introduction Accreditation: Stellenbosch University Short Course Number A credit Social Research Methodology SAQA level 8 short course adhering to SAQA and HEQC approval, quality control, individual assessment and accreditation requirements and with official certificates of competence.

Sep 09,  · The colored map shows the concentration of Arctic sea ice, as measured by the the AMSR2 satellite instrument.

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The second frame in the animation is a. Animals and Ethics. What place should non-human animals have in an acceptable moral system?


These animals exist on the borderline of our moral concepts; the result is that we sometimes find ourselves according them a strong moral status, while at other times denying them any. Second, a focus on practices (in the plural) avoids the mistaken impression that there is one distinctive approach common to all science—a single “scientific method”—or that uncertainty is.

Fact vs Theory. The terms fact and theory are words with different meanings. Although both are used in many different fields of studies, they still manage to have their .

Comparisons of ethical theories
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A Summary of the Terms and Types of Ethical Theories | Owlcation